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Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 27 [O. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world.), meaning "Lenin's City".
On 6 September 1991, the original name, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Petersburg." Local residents often refer to the city by its nickname, Piter.
Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war; he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital (or seat of government) as early as 1704.
During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress.
The third emperor's assassination took place in Petersburg in 1881 when Alexander II fell victim to narodniki (see the Church of the Savior on Blood).
meaning "Peter's City", to remove the German words Sankt and Burg.
By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals.With the emancipation of the serfs undertaken by Alexander II in 1861 and an Industrial Revolution, the influx of former peasants into the capital increased greatly.Poor boroughs spontaneously emerged on the outskirts of the city.In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture.Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the city can be higher than the Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings.referring to the three major developments in the political history of Russia of the early 20th-century.In September and October 1917, German troops invaded the West Estonian archipelago and threatened Petrograd with bombardment and invasion.It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires.The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets.In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg.